A year ago, we were working with Alexandre Gallice on a workshop to get started with Camel Quarkus. We have given this workshop several times in different conferences, and it has evolved through the questions, difficulties and contributions we have had from other people.
This workshop is a good start with Apache Camel, even if Quarkus is not your preferred runtime environment. This is an introduction to Apache Camel concepts, such as Routes, Components and Integration Patterns.
You can try the workshop yourself by following the steps in this link.